The Age of Insight PDF ´ The Age Kindle -

The Age of Insight PDF ´ The Age Kindle -


The Age of Insight [Reading] ➿ The Age of Insight ➶ Eric R. Kandel – Capitalsoftworks.co.uk A brilliant book by Nobel Prize winner Eric R Kandel The Age of Insight takes us to Vienna 1900 where leaders in science medicine and art began a revolution that changed forever how we think about the A brilliant book by Nobel Prize winner Eric R Kandel The Age of Insight The Age Kindle - takes us to Vienna where leaders in science medicine and art began a revolution that changed forever how we think about the human mind—our conscious and unconscious thoughts and emotions—and how mind and brain relate to art   At the turn of the century Vienna was the cultural capital of Europe Artists and scientists met in glittering salons where they freely exchanged ideas that led to revolutionary breakthroughs in psychology brain science literature and art Kandel takes us into the world of Vienna to trace in rich and rewarding detail the ideas and advances made then and their enduring influence today   The Vienna School of Medicine led the way with its realization that truth lies hidden beneath the surface That principle infused Viennese culture and strongly influenced the other pioneers of Vienna Sigmund Freud shocked the world with his insights into how our everyday unconscious aggressive and erotic desires are repressed and disguised in symbols dreams and behavior Arthur Schnitzler revealed women’s unconscious sexuality in his novels through his innovative use of the interior monologue Gustav Klimt Oscar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele created startlingly evocative and honest portraits that expressed unconscious lust desire anxiety and the fear of death   Kandel tells the story of how these pioneers—Freud Schnitzler Klimt Kokoschka and Schiele—inspired by the Vienna School of Medicine in turn influenced the founders of the Vienna School of Art History to ask pivotal uestions such as What does the viewer bring to a work of art How does the beholder respond to it These uestions prompted new and ongoing discoveries in psychology and brain biology leading to revelations about how we see and perceive how we think and feel and how we respond to and create works of art Kandel one of the leading scientific thinkers of our time places these five innovators in the context of today’s cutting edge science and gives us a new understanding of the modernist art of Klimt Kokoschka and Schiele as well as the school of thought of Freud and Schnitzler Reinvigorating the intellectual enuiry that began in Vienna The Age of Insight is a wonderfully written superbly researched and beautifully illustrated book that also provides a foundation for future work in neuroscience and the humanities It is an extraordinary book from an international leader in neuroscience and intellectual history.

  • Hardcover
  • 656 pages
  • The Age of Insight
  • Eric R. Kandel
  • English
  • 08 July 2016
  • 9781400068715

About the Author: Eric R. Kandel

Eric Richard Kandel is an Austrian American medical doctor with a specialization in psychology The Age Kindle - and neuroscience He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons He shared the prize with Arvid Carlsson and Paul GreengardKandel is a professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the Columbia University College of Physic.



10 thoughts on “The Age of Insight

  1. Adrian Adrian says:

    Best book about bridging the two cultures arthumanitarian and science The author already has a Nobel prize so you know you are in good hands We should invent a new award for books like these actually It is even better if you read the book in Vienna as you can also see some of the paintings in the Upper Belvedere and visit the other 2 museums Josephinum and Freud that had a big role in Kandel's life and in the early history of the ideas behind this book Will try to read it again after I read some of the books included in its gigantic bibliography Well done Put it on the same shelf with Gombrich and Arnheim I would also recommend to read this book following Kandel's autobiography In Search of Memory as the two books intersect in countless ways I almost think he intended to write a 1000 pages book to cover both subjects his life and the Vienna influence on modern research especially in medicine biology psychology literature art The influence of the Vienna Circle on the physics and mathematics of the 20th century is left aside maybe because the author is not an expert on these topics When you look back and see that you had people like Godel Wittgenstein Klimt Freud Jung for a brief period and others living in the same city you can only wonder how the world would have looked like without the two wars?

  2. E. G. E. G. says:

    Preface The Age of Insight The uest to Understand the Unconscious in Art Mind and Brain from Vienna 1900 to the Present AcknowledgmentsNotesBibliographyIllustration CreditsIndex

  3. Kunal Sen Kunal Sen says:

    My year ended on a high note by finishing this most remarkable book – Eric R Kandel’s The Age of Insight – The uest to Understand the Unconscious in Art Mind and Brain from Vienna 1900 to the Present The timing of this book was remarkable for me because it happened on the same year when my primary focus was to find a bridge that I can use to cross at will between my two passions – science and art Right after I wrote a blog on this topic Artists without Science my Art Historian friend Arjun Gupta recommended the book to me I immediately grabbed it and started reading but uickly realized that it is not a book that I should read uickly during my long daily commute but rather cherish as a good bottle of wine slowly deliberately and take my time to explore the art that the author uses to illustrate his point There was also a practical side to it – the book was too heavy to be carried around Let me start with the author Eric Kandel is a neuroscientist who has been doing some of the most remarkable work in his field and during a time where there is a revolutionary explosion of new ideas theories and experimental results that are changing our view of the mind in the most fundamental ways Kandel’s work on the mechanism of memory also earned him a Nobel Prize in the year 2000 What makes Eric Kandel uniue is not only his scientific authority but also his deep understanding of the history of visual arts and his knowledge and understanding of one of most remarkable time and place when it comes to modernist art – Vienna around the turn of the last century Kandel starts the book with a detailed recounting of Vienna around 1900 It was a remarkable place and time when a number of brilliant people came together each passionately involved in understanding the human mind but from entirely different perspectives and most unusually they actually talked and exchanged ideas There were philosophers like Moritz Schlick Rudolf Carnap Kurt Gödel and Ludwig Wittgenstein musicians like Gustav Mahler Arnold Schonberg and Alban Berg architect Otto Wagner writer Arthur Schnitzler and artists like Gustav Klimt Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka A common theme that connected these individuals were the evolving understanding that much of what happens in our mind is below the level of conscious thought The new scientific ideas prompted the artists to look deep inside and explore and expose what is hiding deep within our mindsSuch interactions between people of different disciplines does not happen all that often but it shows the fantastic creative potential when thinkers cross the line and take a look at what others are doing We are incredibly lucky to live in one such period when suddenly the walls between a number of different domains of knowledge are starting to collapse Many age old philosophical uestions are now being revisited as scientific problems We are making remarkable progress in understanding mysterious phenomenon such as consciousness We are connecting our sense of morality with the biology of evolution This book does a remarkable job of connecting our sense of visual aesthetics with structures in our brain the complex interactions between different parts of the brain and our evolutionary history It shows how successful artists “discover” these properties subconsciously and learns how to exploit them to create the desired emotional effect on the audience It also shows how the mind of the beholder and not just the artist that is at play hereIn the rest of the book he carefully pick up different aspects of visual aesthetics and connects them with what we know today about the brain and the mind It is a fascinating journey beautifully illustrated with various artistic examples Many of these pieces were familiar to me but the book provided an entirely new perspective of looking at them That to me is the essence of a great book and a great idea it makes you look at familiar things in novel waysThe author does not claim that we understand it all These are just scientific possibilities at this point were some ideas are rigorously explored than others But just as the brilliant neuroscientist VS Ramachandran also points out in his book The Tell Tale Brain – a Neuroscientist’s uest for What Makes Us Human it opens the door that these speculative ideas can finally be explored experimentally This is a huge step from purely conjectural thoughts where there is no way to check if the idea can actually stand on it legs It is just as important to realize that obtaining a deeper understanding of why a certain piece of art work emotionally does not steal away from the pure enjoyment In fact I believe from my own subjective experience it could sharpens one’s ability to enjoy art and thus make the pleasure even pleasurable It is no different than our understanding of why human society as an evolutionary entity needs the emotion of “love” to tie us together as social units makes it any difficult for us to fall in love We humans have a natural tendency to romanticize certain things as magical as if beyond understanding However we have seen again and again in history things don’t have to be magical to be fascinating There was a time not too long ago when sunrise and sunset were seen as magical Today we know with all certainty how it works But knowing all that sitting on a sea shore the sunset looks no less amazing or romantic In fact knowing that the sun is one of the billions of stars around us and the fact there are starts in the known universe than there are all the grains of sand on earth makes it even amazing

  4. Randol Schoenberg Randol Schoenberg says:

    This is an incredible book a real tour de force in explaining in layman's terms some of the most amazing and important recent developments in neuroscience biology and psychology at the same time relating them to the artistic achievements of Klimt Schiele and Kokoschka in Vienna 1900 If there is a flaw it is Kandel's avoidance of any discussion of music and especially of Schoenberg who also painted artworks that fit much better into his thesis than those of Klimt Schiele and Kokoschka The book would have benefited from a reading of the Schoenberg Kandinsky correspondence After all it does not make sense to discuss the influence of the unconscious on art without uoting Schoenberg art belongs to the unconscious Nevertheless the book is fascinating to read And naturally on the science side Kandel a nobel prize winner for his work in neuroscience is unparalleled His goal is to make the science accessible and to open a dialogue between the sciences and humanities In fact the science is tough for someone unfamiliar with the biology of the eye or brain but after 500 pages even a layman will feel like heshe understands a bit how things really work inside our heads Recommended for anyone who wants to understand the human brain and behavior or enjoys good art or both

  5. Annie Annie says:

    This is uite honestly the best book I have read this year It will probably be the best book I read all year too It combined so many of my interests art psychology neurology art criticism and art history and was written so beautifully and convincingly that I enjoyed every page of it I picked it up from the library because I was researching Klimt and this was just a whimsical find I need to give in to flights of whimsy often I think I have a greater appreciation for Freud and his contributions to psychology now than when I had to take a developmental psychology in college uite honestly I can't sing this book's praises highly enoughI would read anything else this author wrote; Mr Kandel has definitely made a fan

  6. Susan Susan says:

    Actually three books in one The first is Vienna 1900 and includes a fine introduction to Freud as well as three artists – Klimt Kokoschka and Schiele The latter can be uite off putting but is a good example for some of the points made later in the book The largest part of the book is devoted to understanding how the senses and brain perceive and interpret art and includes a truly phenomenal overview of about a century of brain research The third book is philosophical and explores creativity and consciousness Extremely well written and illustrated for anyone interested in psychology perception or neuroscience

  7. Marzie Marzie says:

    This promises to be a long dense read but I already am fascinated after the first two chapters

  8. Robert Robert says:

    Eric Kandel's book The Age of Insight is a brilliant study of the interrelationship between what we think of as the theory of mind and the theory of art as mediated by the science of the brain a topic for which he won a Nobel prize in biologyphysiology Kandel born in Vienna and emigrated to the US as a boy opens the book with an assessment of the painters Klimpt Kokoshka and Shiele and the psychologist Freud all of whom were part of Vienna's remarkable cultural life circa 1900Freud is foundational to this study in that he proposed we live our lives only dimly aware that beneath consciousness lies a very active unconscious which manifests itself not only in dreams but in everyday life His theorizing coincided with and supported Viennese modernismexpressionism an attempt to depict the dramas of interior life as opposed to the realistic scenes of exterior life The artists in uestion are shocking in many ways because Kandel argues they were exploring realities hitherto hidden from the arts He goes further when he makes the scientific case for ways in which Viennese expressionism reflected what we were coming to know as the biology of the brain In some ways Kokoshka et al ran ahead of science in fact Freud's theorizing after all lacked technical support for decades in the form of MRIs etc which could pinpoint areas of the brain engaged by representations of feeling as opposed to representations of physical factKandel is generous in acknowledging the leading figures in the arts and sciences he cites as he makes his larger argument For a wholly consumed scientist most of his life his appreciation of painting in particular is impressive He does not advance Vienna 1900 as a be all and end all in the world of western culture but he makes a solid case and he adds to this case a very sophisticated survey of relevant scientific advances covering brain biology creativity memory vision and languageIn conclusion Kandel calls for a continuation and deepening of the dialogue between the arts and sciences Many on the humanistic side of the discussion might wonder who would be an appropriate scientific counterpart Kandel definitely is one such figure; he cites dozens of others This is a hopeful and encouraging book albeit a challenging one It's not light reading But it's informed by genius

  9. Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin says:

    I read this book years ago and greatly enjoyed it Kandel unites modernist art of Fin de Siecle Vienna Freud The Gestalt movement of psychology and modern cognitive psychology and Neuroscience to put together a beautiful work of art and science Not only showing a glowing and fertile moment in European history but engages with high modernist art and how our brains process such wonders This book is on my favorites list for good reason

  10. Erin Erin says:

    By far this is one of the worst books I have ever read I thought I was getting an interesting piece on how the brain reacts when viewing artinstead I got a hero worship guide to some of the most uestionable people in art science This book really shows how dangerous it is that a few wealthy elite can virtually take over the arts and sciences in a city and use that wealth and influence to propagate garbage The artists the author worships are literally pervertsonea man who not only enjoyed painting himself masturbating but was later arrested and served jailtime for molesting at least one underage model The author defends him by saying It was her word against his No proofexcept it WAS proved in a court of law The second artist is a man who paid female models to masturbate or engage in lesbian acts for him to draw for his own private enjoyment later The author claims this was so liberating for womenbecause we all know women engage in paid sexual activity to be liberated not out of desperation This same artist's public work contained women dressed in garments made of swirling sperm ovum and other such nonsense I don't consider any of this artthe true definition of art is that it raises you up or invokes deep emotion it also reuires talent the author also enjoys the same hero worship of Freud and darwin two perfect examples yet again of how connections really perpetuate those who deserve no place in history Freud was a nutjob who never used the scientific method to back up any of his workinstead he projected his own thoughts and feelings on to his patients Darwin was a eugenicist who believed he could create his own master race by breeding his children and that of his friends togetherin fact it was Darwin's works of eugenics which inspired both Hitler and early Planned Parenthood including the forced sterilization of thousands of American black and retarded women Funny how those facts have been largely forgotten All in all it's hard to take this author seriously his own bias renders him unualified for this subject

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10 thoughts on “The Age of Insight

  1. Adrian Adrian says:

    Best book about bridging the two cultures arthumanitarian and science The author already has a Nobel prize so you know you are in good hands We should invent a new award for books like these actually It is even better if you read the book in Vienna as you can also see some of the paintings in the Upper Belvedere and visit the other 2 museums Josephinum and Freud that had a big role in Kandel's life and in the early history of the ideas behind this book Will try to read it again after I read some of the books included in its gigantic bibliography Well done Put it on the same shelf with Gombrich and Arnheim I would also recommend to read this book following Kandel's autobiography In Search of Memory as the two books intersect in countless ways I almost think he intended to write a 1000 pages book to cover both subjects his life and the Vienna influence on modern research especially in medicine biology psychology literature art The influence of the Vienna Circle on the physics and mathematics of the 20th century is left aside maybe because the author is not an expert on these topics When you look back and see that you had people like Godel Wittgenstein Klimt Freud Jung for a brief period and others living in the same city you can only wonder how the world would have looked like without the two wars?

  2. E. G. E. G. says:

    Preface The Age of Insight The uest to Understand the Unconscious in Art Mind and Brain from Vienna 1900 to the Present AcknowledgmentsNotesBibliographyIllustration CreditsIndex

  3. Kunal Sen Kunal Sen says:

    My year ended on a high note by finishing this most remarkable book – Eric R Kandel’s The Age of Insight – The uest to Understand the Unconscious in Art Mind and Brain from Vienna 1900 to the Present The timing of this book was remarkable for me because it happened on the same year when my primary focus was to find a bridge that I can use to cross at will between my two passions – science and art Right after I wrote a blog on this topic Artists without Science my Art Historian friend Arjun Gupta recommended the book to me I immediately grabbed it and started reading but uickly realized that it is not a book that I should read uickly during my long daily commute but rather cherish as a good bottle of wine slowly deliberately and take my time to explore the art that the author uses to illustrate his point There was also a practical side to it – the book was too heavy to be carried around Let me start with the author Eric Kandel is a neuroscientist who has been doing some of the most remarkable work in his field and during a time where there is a revolutionary explosion of new ideas theories and experimental results that are changing our view of the mind in the most fundamental ways Kandel’s work on the mechanism of memory also earned him a Nobel Prize in the year 2000 What makes Eric Kandel uniue is not only his scientific authority but also his deep understanding of the history of visual arts and his knowledge and understanding of one of most remarkable time and place when it comes to modernist art – Vienna around the turn of the last century Kandel starts the book with a detailed recounting of Vienna around 1900 It was a remarkable place and time when a number of brilliant people came together each passionately involved in understanding the human mind but from entirely different perspectives and most unusually they actually talked and exchanged ideas There were philosophers like Moritz Schlick Rudolf Carnap Kurt Gödel and Ludwig Wittgenstein musicians like Gustav Mahler Arnold Schonberg and Alban Berg architect Otto Wagner writer Arthur Schnitzler and artists like Gustav Klimt Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka A common theme that connected these individuals were the evolving understanding that much of what happens in our mind is below the level of conscious thought The new scientific ideas prompted the artists to look deep inside and explore and expose what is hiding deep within our mindsSuch interactions between people of different disciplines does not happen all that often but it shows the fantastic creative potential when thinkers cross the line and take a look at what others are doing We are incredibly lucky to live in one such period when suddenly the walls between a number of different domains of knowledge are starting to collapse Many age old philosophical uestions are now being revisited as scientific problems We are making remarkable progress in understanding mysterious phenomenon such as consciousness We are connecting our sense of morality with the biology of evolution This book does a remarkable job of connecting our sense of visual aesthetics with structures in our brain the complex interactions between different parts of the brain and our evolutionary history It shows how successful artists “discover” these properties subconsciously and learns how to exploit them to create the desired emotional effect on the audience It also shows how the mind of the beholder and not just the artist that is at play hereIn the rest of the book he carefully pick up different aspects of visual aesthetics and connects them with what we know today about the brain and the mind It is a fascinating journey beautifully illustrated with various artistic examples Many of these pieces were familiar to me but the book provided an entirely new perspective of looking at them That to me is the essence of a great book and a great idea it makes you look at familiar things in novel waysThe author does not claim that we understand it all These are just scientific possibilities at this point were some ideas are rigorously explored than others But just as the brilliant neuroscientist VS Ramachandran also points out in his book The Tell Tale Brain – a Neuroscientist’s uest for What Makes Us Human it opens the door that these speculative ideas can finally be explored experimentally This is a huge step from purely conjectural thoughts where there is no way to check if the idea can actually stand on it legs It is just as important to realize that obtaining a deeper understanding of why a certain piece of art work emotionally does not steal away from the pure enjoyment In fact I believe from my own subjective experience it could sharpens one’s ability to enjoy art and thus make the pleasure even pleasurable It is no different than our understanding of why human society as an evolutionary entity needs the emotion of “love” to tie us together as social units makes it any difficult for us to fall in love We humans have a natural tendency to romanticize certain things as magical as if beyond understanding However we have seen again and again in history things don’t have to be magical to be fascinating There was a time not too long ago when sunrise and sunset were seen as magical Today we know with all certainty how it works But knowing all that sitting on a sea shore the sunset looks no less amazing or romantic In fact knowing that the sun is one of the billions of stars around us and the fact there are starts in the known universe than there are all the grains of sand on earth makes it even amazing

  4. Randol Schoenberg Randol Schoenberg says:

    This is an incredible book a real tour de force in explaining in layman's terms some of the most amazing and important recent developments in neuroscience biology and psychology at the same time relating them to the artistic achievements of Klimt Schiele and Kokoschka in Vienna 1900 If there is a flaw it is Kandel's avoidance of any discussion of music and especially of Schoenberg who also painted artworks that fit much better into his thesis than those of Klimt Schiele and Kokoschka The book would have benefited from a reading of the Schoenberg Kandinsky correspondence After all it does not make sense to discuss the influence of the unconscious on art without uoting Schoenberg art belongs to the unconscious Nevertheless the book is fascinating to read And naturally on the science side Kandel a nobel prize winner for his work in neuroscience is unparalleled His goal is to make the science accessible and to open a dialogue between the sciences and humanities In fact the science is tough for someone unfamiliar with the biology of the eye or brain but after 500 pages even a layman will feel like heshe understands a bit how things really work inside our heads Recommended for anyone who wants to understand the human brain and behavior or enjoys good art or both

  5. Annie Annie says:

    This is uite honestly the best book I have read this year It will probably be the best book I read all year too It combined so many of my interests art psychology neurology art criticism and art history and was written so beautifully and convincingly that I enjoyed every page of it I picked it up from the library because I was researching Klimt and this was just a whimsical find I need to give in to flights of whimsy often I think I have a greater appreciation for Freud and his contributions to psychology now than when I had to take a developmental psychology in college uite honestly I can't sing this book's praises highly enoughI would read anything else this author wrote; Mr Kandel has definitely made a fan

  6. Susan Susan says:

    Actually three books in one The first is Vienna 1900 and includes a fine introduction to Freud as well as three artists – Klimt Kokoschka and Schiele The latter can be uite off putting but is a good example for some of the points made later in the book The largest part of the book is devoted to understanding how the senses and brain perceive and interpret art and includes a truly phenomenal overview of about a century of brain research The third book is philosophical and explores creativity and consciousness Extremely well written and illustrated for anyone interested in psychology perception or neuroscience

  7. Marzie Marzie says:

    This promises to be a long dense read but I already am fascinated after the first two chapters

  8. Robert Robert says:

    Eric Kandel's book The Age of Insight is a brilliant study of the interrelationship between what we think of as the theory of mind and the theory of art as mediated by the science of the brain a topic for which he won a Nobel prize in biologyphysiology Kandel born in Vienna and emigrated to the US as a boy opens the book with an assessment of the painters Klimpt Kokoshka and Shiele and the psychologist Freud all of whom were part of Vienna's remarkable cultural life circa 1900Freud is foundational to this study in that he proposed we live our lives only dimly aware that beneath consciousness lies a very active unconscious which manifests itself not only in dreams but in everyday life His theorizing coincided with and supported Viennese modernismexpressionism an attempt to depict the dramas of interior life as opposed to the realistic scenes of exterior life The artists in uestion are shocking in many ways because Kandel argues they were exploring realities hitherto hidden from the arts He goes further when he makes the scientific case for ways in which Viennese expressionism reflected what we were coming to know as the biology of the brain In some ways Kokoshka et al ran ahead of science in fact Freud's theorizing after all lacked technical support for decades in the form of MRIs etc which could pinpoint areas of the brain engaged by representations of feeling as opposed to representations of physical factKandel is generous in acknowledging the leading figures in the arts and sciences he cites as he makes his larger argument For a wholly consumed scientist most of his life his appreciation of painting in particular is impressive He does not advance Vienna 1900 as a be all and end all in the world of western culture but he makes a solid case and he adds to this case a very sophisticated survey of relevant scientific advances covering brain biology creativity memory vision and languageIn conclusion Kandel calls for a continuation and deepening of the dialogue between the arts and sciences Many on the humanistic side of the discussion might wonder who would be an appropriate scientific counterpart Kandel definitely is one such figure; he cites dozens of others This is a hopeful and encouraging book albeit a challenging one It's not light reading But it's informed by genius

  9. Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin says:

    I read this book years ago and greatly enjoyed it Kandel unites modernist art of Fin de Siecle Vienna Freud The Gestalt movement of psychology and modern cognitive psychology and Neuroscience to put together a beautiful work of art and science Not only showing a glowing and fertile moment in European history but engages with high modernist art and how our brains process such wonders This book is on my favorites list for good reason

  10. Erin Erin says:

    By far this is one of the worst books I have ever read I thought I was getting an interesting piece on how the brain reacts when viewing artinstead I got a hero worship guide to some of the most uestionable people in art science This book really shows how dangerous it is that a few wealthy elite can virtually take over the arts and sciences in a city and use that wealth and influence to propagate garbage The artists the author worships are literally pervertsonea man who not only enjoyed painting himself masturbating but was later arrested and served jailtime for molesting at least one underage model The author defends him by saying It was her word against his No proofexcept it WAS proved in a court of law The second artist is a man who paid female models to masturbate or engage in lesbian acts for him to draw for his own private enjoyment later The author claims this was so liberating for womenbecause we all know women engage in paid sexual activity to be liberated not out of desperation This same artist's public work contained women dressed in garments made of swirling sperm ovum and other such nonsense I don't consider any of this artthe true definition of art is that it raises you up or invokes deep emotion it also reuires talent the author also enjoys the same hero worship of Freud and darwin two perfect examples yet again of how connections really perpetuate those who deserve no place in history Freud was a nutjob who never used the scientific method to back up any of his workinstead he projected his own thoughts and feelings on to his patients Darwin was a eugenicist who believed he could create his own master race by breeding his children and that of his friends togetherin fact it was Darwin's works of eugenics which inspired both Hitler and early Planned Parenthood including the forced sterilization of thousands of American black and retarded women Funny how those facts have been largely forgotten All in all it's hard to take this author seriously his own bias renders him unualified for this subject

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