Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb Epub

Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb Epub



10 thoughts on “Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb

  1. Greta G Greta G says:

    Great scientific and historical overview of the making of the first atomic bombs and the decision to drop them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Well written and well researched, with simple black and white drawings, this graphic novel was an informative and satisfactory read Now I need to find some uranium and plutonium to try this at home Great scientific and historical overview of the making of the first atomic bombs and the decision to drop them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Well written and well researched, with simple black and white drawings, this graphic novel was an informative and satisfactory read Now I need to find some uranium and plutonium to try this at home


  2. Lauren Lauren says:

    More than a history of the atomic bomb, Trinity is also a primer on the physics and history behind nuclear fission, and simultaneously a social history of the Manhattan Project Fetter Vorm is a storyteller and an educator, seamlessly weaving the story of Oppenheimer and General Groves collaborative project in the desert of New Mexico not too far from where I grew up with the history of science One of the standout sections of the book for me was the countdown to the test explosion in Los More than a history of the atomic bomb, Trinity is also a primer on the physics and history behind nuclear fission, and simultaneously a social history of the Manhattan Project Fetter Vorm is a storyteller and an educator, seamlessly weaving the story of Oppenheimer and General Groves collaborative project in the desert of New Mexico not too far from where I grew up with the history of science One of the standout sections of the book for me was the countdown to the test explosion in Los Alamos, interspersed with Oppenheimer quoting from the Bhagavad Gita The book states that the conversations and situations within really happened, so Oppenheimer, a scholar of Sanskrit and ancient Indian Literature, truly did quote Krishna s words to Arjuna Fascinating.The end of the book was very difficult to read, knowing the history and the end results of this creation Trinity is a very important addition to the growing number of graphic histories I hope to seework by Fetter Vorm


  3. Trudie Trudie says:

    I picked this graphic novel up purely because I needed a book about technology for a reading challenge, not a topic I naturally gravitate towards in my reading I certainly don t think I would have come across this particular book without that nudge This is a fantastic discovery for me, the power of graphic novels to tell a story like this in a way that doesn t feel dumbed down, yet neither is it obfuscated in dry facts and dense prose For readers who shy away from reading non fiction I thin I picked this graphic novel up purely because I needed a book about technology for a reading challenge, not a topic I naturally gravitate towards in my reading I certainly don t think I would have come across this particular book without that nudge This is a fantastic discovery for me, the power of graphic novels to tell a story like this in a way that doesn t feel dumbed down, yet neither is it obfuscated in dry facts and dense prose For readers who shy away from reading non fiction I think this is a perfect introduction to the fascinating story of The Manhattan Project It presents the science, history and ethical considerations around the development of the first atomic bomb in a way you can digest in one sitting The quotes come directly from source documents where possible and the imagery is particularly brilliant at explaining concepts like nuclear fission and isotopes of Uranium I think even the most scientifically adverse would appreciate the domino analogy used to explain the concept of critical mass Obviously, if this graphic novel sparks your curiosity for the topic there arein depth works which are cited for interested readers in the back of the book There were certain areas of this story I wanted to knowabout, I think some of the politics was glossed over and the aftermath was touched on very briefly However, on the whole I thought this was exceptional


  4. Skip Skip says:

    Kudos to Jonathan Fetter Vorm for an excellent, well written and informative book about Little Boy and Fat Man, the atomic bombs dropped on Hirsohima and Nagasaki to end World War II In a graphic book format, using simple but effective black and white drawings, Trinity weaves together the science, social, military and political background for the invention of this world changing technology Very well researched, integrating source material, the secrecy in which the bombs were constructed, it en Kudos to Jonathan Fetter Vorm for an excellent, well written and informative book about Little Boy and Fat Man, the atomic bombs dropped on Hirsohima and Nagasaki to end World War II In a graphic book format, using simple but effective black and white drawings, Trinity weaves together the science, social, military and political background for the invention of this world changing technology Very well researched, integrating source material, the secrecy in which the bombs were constructed, it ends with the devastation inflicted and the questions that still remain over the role for weapons of mass destruction worry in modern warfare Recommended, especially for teenagers who are not big readers, but do like history


  5. Sheila Sheila says:

    Prior to this book I had never read a Graphic Novel I will admit to even being a bit of a book snob, the type who thought Graphic Novels were just glorified comic books, and not real books I read literature, I read 1000 page classics Graphic novels Pshaw But this book has changed my opinion of Graphic Novels I didn t know they could be this good I didn t know they could be this emotional I didn t know they could be this educational It could be that I am going through a reading binge on Prior to this book I had never read a Graphic Novel I will admit to even being a bit of a book snob, the type who thought Graphic Novels were just glorified comic books, and not real books I read literature, I read 1000 page classics Graphic novels Pshaw But this book has changed my opinion of Graphic Novels I didn t know they could be this good I didn t know they could be this emotional I didn t know they could be this educational It could be that I am going through a reading binge on the atomic bomb, Los Alamos, Trinity, etc., so I am interested in this topic, but the way it was presented was incredible The book tells the story of the scientists, of the development and testing of the bomb at Los Alamos, and then the use of the bomb on Japan The black and white drawings are very well done Some of the pages really made me stop Yes, stop Stop, stare at a page Stare at a picture Stare at the simple dialogue, or no dialogue, and just think Imagine Digest Absorb Cringe Put in a bookmark, set the book down Think Open the book back up Look at the page again Wow Really Intense And yes, this is from a Graphic Novel, what I used to consider a glorified comic book But this is no comic book.So thank you to Mr Fetter Vorm for changing my viewpoint on the Graphic Novel I hope there are other similar educational, non fiction books of this type I will now be on the lookout for them Because it is true, a picture can be worth 1000 words


  6. Ryan Potter Ryan Potter says:

    I have two history degrees and have taught social studies for 19 years I ve become a huge fan of non fiction graphic books and graphic novels the past few years because they draw in reluctant readers in my classroom But here s the thing about TRINITY the book is better than a lot of adult works on the subject, and I think it comes down to the riveting pictures and writing style of the author.TRINITY is impeccably researched and does a splendid job of retelling the story of the Manhattan Proje I have two history degrees and have taught social studies for 19 years I ve become a huge fan of non fiction graphic books and graphic novels the past few years because they draw in reluctant readers in my classroom But here s the thing about TRINITY the book is better than a lot of adult works on the subject, and I think it comes down to the riveting pictures and writing style of the author.TRINITY is impeccably researched and does a splendid job of retelling the story of the Manhattan Project The author does an especially solid job of presenting the working relationship between General Groves and Dr Oppenheimer Further, anybody who is a visual learner will appreciate the simple way the science behind the bomb is presented.I highly recommend this for high school history teachers, students, and adults who want an outstanding primer on the Manhattan Project Personally, I can t stand textbooks and would love to seequality non fiction graphic books like this one in classrooms


  7. Miroku Nemeth Miroku Nemeth says:

    The scientific explanations and a good portion of the history behind the creation of the atomic bomb are ingeniously rendered in graphic form This is what earned it at least 3 stars However, it sadly takes a turn into the worst kind of repetition of official government propaganda lines when it deals with Truman, Byrnes, and the decision to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Fetter Vorm has military planners, for example, choose Hiroshima because it is a military target Nothing could The scientific explanations and a good portion of the history behind the creation of the atomic bomb are ingeniously rendered in graphic form This is what earned it at least 3 stars However, it sadly takes a turn into the worst kind of repetition of official government propaganda lines when it deals with Truman, Byrnes, and the decision to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Fetter Vorm has military planners, for example, choose Hiroshima because it is a military target Nothing could be further from the truth Nothing could beof a damned lie There are texts and frames depicting the negotiations between the world power, including Japanese and Americans, that are about as realistic and historical as an issue of Superman, where the Japanese are shown to reject all peace overtures until after the dropping of the bombs This is a despicable misrepresentation The Japanese leadership had been trying to surrender for some time, but Truman and Byrnes wanted to send their message to Stalin Fetter Vorm mentions this as a strategic consideration, but he still pumps up the lie that wasn t believed by Eisenhower or Marshall and many other top military commanders that as many as a million US soldiers would have died taking the main islands in Japan He also fails to mention any kind of number for the casualties in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki, which is the most immoral kind of lie through omission that is especially troubling with Fetter Vorm s usual attention to minute details I leave you with an analysis of the historical documents surrounding the dropping of the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki from one of the twentieth century s greatest historians The bombing of Japanese cities continued the strategy of saturation bombing to destroy civilian morale one nighttime fire bombing of Tokyo took 80,000 lives And then, on August 6, 1945, came the lone American plane in the sky over Hiroshima, dropping the first atomic bomb, leaving perhaps 100,000 Japanese dead, and tens of thousandsslowly dying from radiation poisoning Twelve U.S navy fliers in the Hiroshima city jail were killed in the bombing, a fact that the U.S government has never officially acknowledged, according to historian Martin Sherwin A World Destroyed Three days later, a second atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, with perhaps 50,000 killed.The justification for these atrocities was that this would end the war quickly, making unnecessary an invasion of Japan Such an invasion would cost a huge number of lives, the government said a million, according to Secretary of State Byrnes half a million, Truman claimed was the figure given him by General George Marshall When the papers of the Manhattan Project the project to build the atom bomb were released years later, they showed that Marshall urged a warning to the Japanese about the bomb, so people could be removed and only military targets hit These estimates of invasion losses were not realistic, and seem to have been pulled out of the air to justify bombings which, as their effects became known, horrifiedandpeople Japan, by August 1945, was in desperate shape and ready to surrender New York Times military analyst Hanson Baldwin wrote, shortly after the war The enemy, in a military sense, was in a hopeless strategic position by the time the Potsdam demand for unconditional surrender was made on July 26.Such then, was the situation when we wiped out Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Need we have done it No one can, of course, be positive, but the answer is almost certainly negative.The United States Strategic Bombing Survey, set up by the War Department in 1944 to study the results of aerial attacks in the war, interviewed hundreds of Japanese civilian and military leaders after Japan surrendered, and reported just after the war Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey s opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.But could American leaders have known this in August 1945 The answer is, clearly, yes The Japanese code had been broken, and Japan s messages were being intercepted It was known the Japanese had instructed their ambassador in Moscow to work on peace negotiations with the Allies Japanese leaders had begun talking of surrender a year before this, and the Emperor himself had begun to suggest, in June 1945, that alternatives to fighting to the end be considered On July 13, Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo wired his ambassador in Moscow Unconditional surrender is the only obstacle to peace. Martin Sherwin, after an exhaustive study of the relevant historical documents, concludes Having broken the Japanese code before the war, American Intelligence was able to and did relay this message to the President, but it had no effect whatever on efforts to bring the war to a conclusion If only the Americans had not insisted on unconditional surrender that is, if they were willing to accept one condition to the surrender, that the Emperor, a holy figure to the Japanese, remain in place the Japanese would have agreed to stop the war.Why did the United States not take that small step to save both American and Japanese lives Was it because too much money and effort had been invested in the atomic bomb not to drop it General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, described Truman as a man on a toboggan, the momentum too great to stop it Or was it, as British scientist P M S Blackett suggested Fear, War, and the Bomb , that the United States was anxious to drop the bomb before the Russians entered the war against Japan The Russians had secretly agreed they were officially not at war with Japan they would come into the war ninety days after the end of the European war That turned out to be May 8, and so, on August 8, the Russians were due to declare war on Japan, But by then the big bomb had been dropped, and the next day a second one would be dropped on Nagasaki the Japanese would surrender to the United States, not the Russians, and the United States would be the occupier of postwar Japan In other words, Blackett says, the dropping of the bomb was the first major operation of the cold diplomatic war with Russia. Blackett is supported by American historian Gar Alperovitz Atomic Diplomacy , who notes a diary entry for July 28, 1945, by Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, describing Secretary of State James F Byrnes as most anxious to get the Japanese affair over with before the Russians got in Truman had said, The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians It was a preposterous statement Those 100,000 killed in Hiroshima were almost all civilians The U.S Strategic Bombing Survey said in its official report Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen as targets because of their concentration of activities and population The dropping of the second bomb on Nagasaki seems to have been scheduled in advance, and no one has ever been able to explain why it was dropped Was it because this was a plutonium bomb whereas the Hiroshima bomb was a uranium bomb Were the dead and irradiated of Nagasaki victims of a scientific experiment Martin Shenvin says that among the Nagasaki dead were probably American prisoners of war He notes a message of July 31 from Headquarters, U.S Army Strategic Air Forces, Guam, to the War Department Reports prisoner of war sources, not verified by photos, give location of Allied prisoner of war camp one mile north of center of city of Nagasaki Does this influence the choice of this target for initial Centerboard operation Request immediate reply.The reply Targets previously assigned for Centerboard remain unchanged


  8. Sesana Sesana says:

    A really good, if quick, history of the development of the atomic bomb I don t have much in the way of prior knowledge here, and you don t really need it There are a few names that are casually thrown out without much, if any, explanation, but those moments were few and far between The graphic format really works well with the scientific explanations for how and why the bomb works.


  9. Farhana Farhana says:

    a very good graphical history from the discovery of atoms to the first nuclear bomb y


  10. Vinayak Hegde Vinayak Hegde says:

    Part science textbook and part historical documentary The book is well researched overview of the science of building the first Atomic bomb and the historical circumstances that led to building it The Manhattan project was started in the deserts of New Mexico Los Alamos and led by General Groves Administration and Robert Oppenheimer Science.The artwork is pretty good though not extraordinary but the given the scientific context it is quite dense with information especially about nuclear Part science textbook and part historical documentary The book is well researched overview of the science of building the first Atomic bomb and the historical circumstances that led to building it The Manhattan project was started in the deserts of New Mexico Los Alamos and led by General Groves Administration and Robert Oppenheimer Science.The artwork is pretty good though not extraordinary but the given the scientific context it is quite dense with information especially about nuclear physics I wish the author had spent sometime dwelling on the personalities of the scientists that made the nuclear bomb Many of them are mentioned in passing with no details of their contributions or personalities The only notable exception to this is Robert Oppenheimer and General Groves The author admits as such in the afterword It is a good read for someone who is interested in the history and science of making the atomic bomb


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Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb [PDF / Epub] ☁ Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb ✎ Jonathan Fetter-Vorm – Capitalsoftworks.co.uk Trinity, the debut graphic book by the gifted illustrator Jonathan Fetter Vorm, depicts in vivid detail the dramatic history of the race to build and the decision to drop the first atomic bomb This sw Trinity, the debut Graphic History PDF/EPUB ì graphic book by the gifted illustrator Jonathan Fetter Vorm, depicts in vivid detail the dramatic history of the race to build and the decision to drop the first atomic bomb This sweeping historical narrative traces the spark of invention from the laboratories of nineteenth century Europe to the massive industrial and scientific efforts of the Manhattan Project Along the way, Fetter Vorm takes special care to explain the fundamental science Trinity: A PDF or of nuclear reactions With the clarity and accessibility that only a graphic book can provide, Trinity transports the reader into the core of a nuclear reaction into the splitting atoms themselvesThe power of the atom was harnessed in a top secret government compound in Los Alamos, New Mexico, where some of the greatest scientific minds in the world gathered together to work on the bomb Fetter Vorm showcases J Robert Oppenheimer, Enrico Fermi, and A Graphic History Kindle × General Leslie Groves, the fathers of the atomic bomb, whose insights unleashed the most devastating explosion known to humankind These brilliant scientists wrestled daily with both the difficulty of building an atomic weapon and the moral implications of actually succeedingWhen the first bomb finally went off at a test site code named Trinity, the world was irreversibly thrust into a new and terrifying age With powerful renderings of the catastrophic events at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Fetter Vorm unflinchingly chronicles the far reaching political, environmental, and ethical effects of this new discovery Richly illustrated and deeply researched, Trinity is a dramatic, informative, and thought provoking book on one of the most significant and harrowing events in history.

10 thoughts on “Trinity: A Graphic History of the First Atomic Bomb

  1. Greta G Greta G says:

    Great scientific and historical overview of the making of the first atomic bombs and the decision to drop them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Well written and well researched, with simple black and white drawings, this graphic novel was an informative and satisfactory read Now I need to find some uranium and plutonium to try this at home Great scientific and historical overview of the making of the first atomic bombs and the decision to drop them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Well written and well researched, with simple black and white drawings, this graphic novel was an informative and satisfactory read Now I need to find some uranium and plutonium to try this at home

  2. Lauren Lauren says:

    More than a history of the atomic bomb, Trinity is also a primer on the physics and history behind nuclear fission, and simultaneously a social history of the Manhattan Project Fetter Vorm is a storyteller and an educator, seamlessly weaving the story of Oppenheimer and General Groves collaborative project in the desert of New Mexico not too far from where I grew up with the history of science One of the standout sections of the book for me was the countdown to the test explosion in Los More than a history of the atomic bomb, Trinity is also a primer on the physics and history behind nuclear fission, and simultaneously a social history of the Manhattan Project Fetter Vorm is a storyteller and an educator, seamlessly weaving the story of Oppenheimer and General Groves collaborative project in the desert of New Mexico not too far from where I grew up with the history of science One of the standout sections of the book for me was the countdown to the test explosion in Los Alamos, interspersed with Oppenheimer quoting from the Bhagavad Gita The book states that the conversations and situations within really happened, so Oppenheimer, a scholar of Sanskrit and ancient Indian Literature, truly did quote Krishna s words to Arjuna Fascinating.The end of the book was very difficult to read, knowing the history and the end results of this creation Trinity is a very important addition to the growing number of graphic histories I hope to seework by Fetter Vorm

  3. Trudie Trudie says:

    I picked this graphic novel up purely because I needed a book about technology for a reading challenge, not a topic I naturally gravitate towards in my reading I certainly don t think I would have come across this particular book without that nudge This is a fantastic discovery for me, the power of graphic novels to tell a story like this in a way that doesn t feel dumbed down, yet neither is it obfuscated in dry facts and dense prose For readers who shy away from reading non fiction I thin I picked this graphic novel up purely because I needed a book about technology for a reading challenge, not a topic I naturally gravitate towards in my reading I certainly don t think I would have come across this particular book without that nudge This is a fantastic discovery for me, the power of graphic novels to tell a story like this in a way that doesn t feel dumbed down, yet neither is it obfuscated in dry facts and dense prose For readers who shy away from reading non fiction I think this is a perfect introduction to the fascinating story of The Manhattan Project It presents the science, history and ethical considerations around the development of the first atomic bomb in a way you can digest in one sitting The quotes come directly from source documents where possible and the imagery is particularly brilliant at explaining concepts like nuclear fission and isotopes of Uranium I think even the most scientifically adverse would appreciate the domino analogy used to explain the concept of critical mass Obviously, if this graphic novel sparks your curiosity for the topic there arein depth works which are cited for interested readers in the back of the book There were certain areas of this story I wanted to knowabout, I think some of the politics was glossed over and the aftermath was touched on very briefly However, on the whole I thought this was exceptional

  4. Skip Skip says:

    Kudos to Jonathan Fetter Vorm for an excellent, well written and informative book about Little Boy and Fat Man, the atomic bombs dropped on Hirsohima and Nagasaki to end World War II In a graphic book format, using simple but effective black and white drawings, Trinity weaves together the science, social, military and political background for the invention of this world changing technology Very well researched, integrating source material, the secrecy in which the bombs were constructed, it en Kudos to Jonathan Fetter Vorm for an excellent, well written and informative book about Little Boy and Fat Man, the atomic bombs dropped on Hirsohima and Nagasaki to end World War II In a graphic book format, using simple but effective black and white drawings, Trinity weaves together the science, social, military and political background for the invention of this world changing technology Very well researched, integrating source material, the secrecy in which the bombs were constructed, it ends with the devastation inflicted and the questions that still remain over the role for weapons of mass destruction worry in modern warfare Recommended, especially for teenagers who are not big readers, but do like history

  5. Sheila Sheila says:

    Prior to this book I had never read a Graphic Novel I will admit to even being a bit of a book snob, the type who thought Graphic Novels were just glorified comic books, and not real books I read literature, I read 1000 page classics Graphic novels Pshaw But this book has changed my opinion of Graphic Novels I didn t know they could be this good I didn t know they could be this emotional I didn t know they could be this educational It could be that I am going through a reading binge on Prior to this book I had never read a Graphic Novel I will admit to even being a bit of a book snob, the type who thought Graphic Novels were just glorified comic books, and not real books I read literature, I read 1000 page classics Graphic novels Pshaw But this book has changed my opinion of Graphic Novels I didn t know they could be this good I didn t know they could be this emotional I didn t know they could be this educational It could be that I am going through a reading binge on the atomic bomb, Los Alamos, Trinity, etc., so I am interested in this topic, but the way it was presented was incredible The book tells the story of the scientists, of the development and testing of the bomb at Los Alamos, and then the use of the bomb on Japan The black and white drawings are very well done Some of the pages really made me stop Yes, stop Stop, stare at a page Stare at a picture Stare at the simple dialogue, or no dialogue, and just think Imagine Digest Absorb Cringe Put in a bookmark, set the book down Think Open the book back up Look at the page again Wow Really Intense And yes, this is from a Graphic Novel, what I used to consider a glorified comic book But this is no comic book.So thank you to Mr Fetter Vorm for changing my viewpoint on the Graphic Novel I hope there are other similar educational, non fiction books of this type I will now be on the lookout for them Because it is true, a picture can be worth 1000 words

  6. Ryan Potter Ryan Potter says:

    I have two history degrees and have taught social studies for 19 years I ve become a huge fan of non fiction graphic books and graphic novels the past few years because they draw in reluctant readers in my classroom But here s the thing about TRINITY the book is better than a lot of adult works on the subject, and I think it comes down to the riveting pictures and writing style of the author.TRINITY is impeccably researched and does a splendid job of retelling the story of the Manhattan Proje I have two history degrees and have taught social studies for 19 years I ve become a huge fan of non fiction graphic books and graphic novels the past few years because they draw in reluctant readers in my classroom But here s the thing about TRINITY the book is better than a lot of adult works on the subject, and I think it comes down to the riveting pictures and writing style of the author.TRINITY is impeccably researched and does a splendid job of retelling the story of the Manhattan Project The author does an especially solid job of presenting the working relationship between General Groves and Dr Oppenheimer Further, anybody who is a visual learner will appreciate the simple way the science behind the bomb is presented.I highly recommend this for high school history teachers, students, and adults who want an outstanding primer on the Manhattan Project Personally, I can t stand textbooks and would love to seequality non fiction graphic books like this one in classrooms

  7. Miroku Nemeth Miroku Nemeth says:

    The scientific explanations and a good portion of the history behind the creation of the atomic bomb are ingeniously rendered in graphic form This is what earned it at least 3 stars However, it sadly takes a turn into the worst kind of repetition of official government propaganda lines when it deals with Truman, Byrnes, and the decision to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Fetter Vorm has military planners, for example, choose Hiroshima because it is a military target Nothing could The scientific explanations and a good portion of the history behind the creation of the atomic bomb are ingeniously rendered in graphic form This is what earned it at least 3 stars However, it sadly takes a turn into the worst kind of repetition of official government propaganda lines when it deals with Truman, Byrnes, and the decision to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Fetter Vorm has military planners, for example, choose Hiroshima because it is a military target Nothing could be further from the truth Nothing could beof a damned lie There are texts and frames depicting the negotiations between the world power, including Japanese and Americans, that are about as realistic and historical as an issue of Superman, where the Japanese are shown to reject all peace overtures until after the dropping of the bombs This is a despicable misrepresentation The Japanese leadership had been trying to surrender for some time, but Truman and Byrnes wanted to send their message to Stalin Fetter Vorm mentions this as a strategic consideration, but he still pumps up the lie that wasn t believed by Eisenhower or Marshall and many other top military commanders that as many as a million US soldiers would have died taking the main islands in Japan He also fails to mention any kind of number for the casualties in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki, which is the most immoral kind of lie through omission that is especially troubling with Fetter Vorm s usual attention to minute details I leave you with an analysis of the historical documents surrounding the dropping of the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki from one of the twentieth century s greatest historians The bombing of Japanese cities continued the strategy of saturation bombing to destroy civilian morale one nighttime fire bombing of Tokyo took 80,000 lives And then, on August 6, 1945, came the lone American plane in the sky over Hiroshima, dropping the first atomic bomb, leaving perhaps 100,000 Japanese dead, and tens of thousandsslowly dying from radiation poisoning Twelve U.S navy fliers in the Hiroshima city jail were killed in the bombing, a fact that the U.S government has never officially acknowledged, according to historian Martin Sherwin A World Destroyed Three days later, a second atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, with perhaps 50,000 killed.The justification for these atrocities was that this would end the war quickly, making unnecessary an invasion of Japan Such an invasion would cost a huge number of lives, the government said a million, according to Secretary of State Byrnes half a million, Truman claimed was the figure given him by General George Marshall When the papers of the Manhattan Project the project to build the atom bomb were released years later, they showed that Marshall urged a warning to the Japanese about the bomb, so people could be removed and only military targets hit These estimates of invasion losses were not realistic, and seem to have been pulled out of the air to justify bombings which, as their effects became known, horrifiedandpeople Japan, by August 1945, was in desperate shape and ready to surrender New York Times military analyst Hanson Baldwin wrote, shortly after the war The enemy, in a military sense, was in a hopeless strategic position by the time the Potsdam demand for unconditional surrender was made on July 26.Such then, was the situation when we wiped out Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Need we have done it No one can, of course, be positive, but the answer is almost certainly negative.The United States Strategic Bombing Survey, set up by the War Department in 1944 to study the results of aerial attacks in the war, interviewed hundreds of Japanese civilian and military leaders after Japan surrendered, and reported just after the war Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey s opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.But could American leaders have known this in August 1945 The answer is, clearly, yes The Japanese code had been broken, and Japan s messages were being intercepted It was known the Japanese had instructed their ambassador in Moscow to work on peace negotiations with the Allies Japanese leaders had begun talking of surrender a year before this, and the Emperor himself had begun to suggest, in June 1945, that alternatives to fighting to the end be considered On July 13, Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo wired his ambassador in Moscow Unconditional surrender is the only obstacle to peace. Martin Sherwin, after an exhaustive study of the relevant historical documents, concludes Having broken the Japanese code before the war, American Intelligence was able to and did relay this message to the President, but it had no effect whatever on efforts to bring the war to a conclusion If only the Americans had not insisted on unconditional surrender that is, if they were willing to accept one condition to the surrender, that the Emperor, a holy figure to the Japanese, remain in place the Japanese would have agreed to stop the war.Why did the United States not take that small step to save both American and Japanese lives Was it because too much money and effort had been invested in the atomic bomb not to drop it General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, described Truman as a man on a toboggan, the momentum too great to stop it Or was it, as British scientist P M S Blackett suggested Fear, War, and the Bomb , that the United States was anxious to drop the bomb before the Russians entered the war against Japan The Russians had secretly agreed they were officially not at war with Japan they would come into the war ninety days after the end of the European war That turned out to be May 8, and so, on August 8, the Russians were due to declare war on Japan, But by then the big bomb had been dropped, and the next day a second one would be dropped on Nagasaki the Japanese would surrender to the United States, not the Russians, and the United States would be the occupier of postwar Japan In other words, Blackett says, the dropping of the bomb was the first major operation of the cold diplomatic war with Russia. Blackett is supported by American historian Gar Alperovitz Atomic Diplomacy , who notes a diary entry for July 28, 1945, by Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, describing Secretary of State James F Byrnes as most anxious to get the Japanese affair over with before the Russians got in Truman had said, The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians It was a preposterous statement Those 100,000 killed in Hiroshima were almost all civilians The U.S Strategic Bombing Survey said in its official report Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen as targets because of their concentration of activities and population The dropping of the second bomb on Nagasaki seems to have been scheduled in advance, and no one has ever been able to explain why it was dropped Was it because this was a plutonium bomb whereas the Hiroshima bomb was a uranium bomb Were the dead and irradiated of Nagasaki victims of a scientific experiment Martin Shenvin says that among the Nagasaki dead were probably American prisoners of war He notes a message of July 31 from Headquarters, U.S Army Strategic Air Forces, Guam, to the War Department Reports prisoner of war sources, not verified by photos, give location of Allied prisoner of war camp one mile north of center of city of Nagasaki Does this influence the choice of this target for initial Centerboard operation Request immediate reply.The reply Targets previously assigned for Centerboard remain unchanged

  8. Sesana Sesana says:

    A really good, if quick, history of the development of the atomic bomb I don t have much in the way of prior knowledge here, and you don t really need it There are a few names that are casually thrown out without much, if any, explanation, but those moments were few and far between The graphic format really works well with the scientific explanations for how and why the bomb works.

  9. Farhana Farhana says:

    a very good graphical history from the discovery of atoms to the first nuclear bomb y

  10. Vinayak Hegde Vinayak Hegde says:

    Part science textbook and part historical documentary The book is well researched overview of the science of building the first Atomic bomb and the historical circumstances that led to building it The Manhattan project was started in the deserts of New Mexico Los Alamos and led by General Groves Administration and Robert Oppenheimer Science.The artwork is pretty good though not extraordinary but the given the scientific context it is quite dense with information especially about nuclear Part science textbook and part historical documentary The book is well researched overview of the science of building the first Atomic bomb and the historical circumstances that led to building it The Manhattan project was started in the deserts of New Mexico Los Alamos and led by General Groves Administration and Robert Oppenheimer Science.The artwork is pretty good though not extraordinary but the given the scientific context it is quite dense with information especially about nuclear physics I wish the author had spent sometime dwelling on the personalities of the scientists that made the nuclear bomb Many of them are mentioned in passing with no details of their contributions or personalities The only notable exception to this is Robert Oppenheimer and General Groves The author admits as such in the afterword It is a good read for someone who is interested in the history and science of making the atomic bomb

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