Kindle Edition ï Poetics PDF Þ

Kindle Edition ï Poetics PDF Þ


Poetics [Download] ➵ Poetics Author Aristotle – Capitalsoftworks.co.uk Aristotle s Poetics is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and the first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory In it, Aristotle offers an account of what he calls poetry Aristotle s Poetics is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and the first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory In it, Aristotle offers an account of what he calls poetry a term which in Greek literally means making and in this context includes drama comedy, tragedy, and the satyr play as well as lyric poetry, epic poetry, and the dithyramb He examines its first principles and identifies its genres and basic elements His analysis of tragedy constitutes the core of the discussion The work was lost to the Western world and often misrepresented for a long time It was available through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance only through a Latin translation of an Arabic version written by Averroes.


10 thoughts on “Poetics

  1. Glenn Russell Glenn Russell says:

    During the golden age of ancient Greece bards roamed the countryside mesmerizing crowds by reciting the epics of Homer Thousands of men and women gathered and were moved to tears by tragedies performed outside in amphitheaters during sacred festivals Such an amazingly powerful and profound experience for an entire population What was going on here why were people so deeply affected Well, one of the sharpest, most analytic minds in the history of the West set himself the task of answering ju During the golden age of ancient Greece bards roamed the countryside mesmerizing crowds by reciting the epics of Homer Thousands of men and women gathered and were moved to tears by tragedies performed outside in amphitheaters during sacred festivals Such an amazingly powerful and profound experience for an entire population What was going on here why were people so deeply affected Well, one of the sharpest, most analytic minds in the history of the West set himself the task of answering just this question his name was Aristotle.Indeed, Aristotle s Poetics is one of the greatest philosophical works ever written For over two thousand years, philosophers, scholars and thinkers have been pouring over each phrase and sentence of the master s words as if they were nuggets of gold There are enough commentaries to fill several thick volumes in a university library Quite something since the entire Poetics is a mere twenty pages But what coverage To list several plot, character, language and two concepts supercharged with meaning mimesis imitation and catharsis inspiring pity or fear.Of course, in our contemporary world we don t listen to bards recite epics or go to amphitheaters to watch tragedies, but we have abundant experience of these dramatic elements since we, among other things, read novels and watch films So, to provide a taste of Aristotle s work, I offer my modest comments along with quotes from the text Please take this as an invitation to explore the Poetics on your own Below is a link to a fine translation and a second link to an extraordinarily clear, brief, easy to follow commentary Poetry in general seems to have sprung from two causes, each of them lying deep in our nature First, the instinct of imitation is implanted in man from childhood, one difference between him and other animals being that he is the most imitative of living creatures, and through imitation learns his earliest lessons and no less universal is the pleasure felt in things imitated to learn gives the liveliest pleasure, not only to philosophers but to men in general Ah, pleasure And pleasure in learning about life through imitation fiction Even if the story involves a Siberian prison camp or an insane chase of a white whale, there is a kind of pleasure in identifying with a character and living through the character s plight Our humanness is enriched Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude The Maltese Falcon begins with very serious action a murder And the story is complete since at the end the case is solved and the criminals answer for their crimes How many novels and films follow this formula Round to the nearest million Now as tragic imitation implies persons acting, it necessarily follows in the first place, that Spectacular equipment will be a part of Tragedy Even back in ancient Greece, Aristotle acknowledges how special effects can really juice the action The most powerful elements of emotional interest in Tragedy Peripeteia or Reversal of the Situation, and Recognition scenes are parts of the plot I don t know about you, but I recall with the film Gone Girl my interest would ratchet up a few notches with every reversal and recognition I can just imagine Gillian Flynn pouring over her Aristotle The greater the length, thebeautiful will the piece be by reason of its size, provided that the whole be perspicuous When I go to a three hour movie or pick up a nine hundred page novel, my first thought this had better be good And when it is good, a great pay off for time spent Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity Admit it, we remember most those times when we are emotionally wrenched.Poetics, on line


  2. Alok Mishra Alok Mishra says:

    Had to study this one by Aristotle in the post graduation syllabus That time, we could not go beyond the walls of our academic requirements When the studies came to an official end, the free exploration began and that was the period I not only read but also pondered, enjoyed and relished in the text It opens up a whole new world in front of the readers who take an interest in literature Poetics is one of the best attempts at critical theories and it s also the base on which some great litera Had to study this one by Aristotle in the post graduation syllabus That time, we could not go beyond the walls of our academic requirements When the studies came to an official end, the free exploration began and that was the period I not only read but also pondered, enjoyed and relished in the text It opens up a whole new world in front of the readers who take an interest in literature Poetics is one of the best attempts at critical theories and it s also the base on which some great literary works have been standing for centuries


  3. Lisa Lisa says:

    I just reluctantly gave my copy of Aristotle s Poetics to my son, who recently discovered drama It is earmarked and highlighted and it guided me through university, telling me what I needed to know about tragedy and its core elements, such as unity of time, place and action.The reason we started talking about drama was that my son didn t particularly like Emilia Galotti, Lessing s B rgerliche Trag die , and we talked about the strange code of honour that made a father kill his daughter to save I just reluctantly gave my copy of Aristotle s Poetics to my son, who recently discovered drama It is earmarked and highlighted and it guided me through university, telling me what I needed to know about tragedy and its core elements, such as unity of time, place and action.The reason we started talking about drama was that my son didn t particularly like Emilia Galotti, Lessing s B rgerliche Trag die , and we talked about the strange code of honour that made a father kill his daughter to save her virtue What s progressive about that my son asked furiously, and I found myself in the bizarre position to defend patriarchy and its flawed moral codes, by saying that it was modern back then to let a girl die tragically without being a princess or a queen.My son raised his eyebrows, and I sensed the lack of logic So it was progressive that women of ALL classes were allowed to be sacrificed to the egos of men who considered them their property Eh I love the fact that literature makes me challenge my own acquired knowledge, and think again about something I just took at face value when I read Emilia Galotti myself For of course it is bizarre, especially considering that Lessing is a representative of Enlightenment culture And while we were at it, we talked about all the other bizarre elements of classical drama And we realised that it islike life than we first thought after all, each day we reinvent the narratives of our lives and press them into what we can perceive as one action, one place and one time one day of madness and drama So yesterday I acted out the tragic loss of my university copy of Aristotle It will stay in spirit


  4. Bill Kerwin Bill Kerwin says:

    If you want to learn about tragedy or narrative in general this is still the best place to start.


  5. Sean Barrs Sean Barrs says:

    It s odd that the most ancient essay on literary criticism is one of the easiest to understand It is so accessible If you compare this to works by Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud the extremities of this can easily be seen Aristotle explains his theory in the most basic language possible with no artful language that distances the reader from it It is completely comprehensive and virtually impossible not to understand Aristotle was an advocate of presenting his arguments in the most simplest of la It s odd that the most ancient essay on literary criticism is one of the easiest to understand It is so accessible If you compare this to works by Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud the extremities of this can easily be seen Aristotle explains his theory in the most basic language possible with no artful language that distances the reader from it It is completely comprehensive and virtually impossible not to understand Aristotle was an advocate of presenting his arguments in the most simplest of languages And I thank him for it Without this book I don t think I would have been able to fully comprehend exactly what a Tragedy is or how they work, and I most certainly wouldn t have been able to pass my Tragedy module of my degree ThePoeticsis essentially a guide, or rulebook, for what makes the perfect tragic play Aristotle argues, well teaches us, that it is achieved through a Cathartic moment that arouses pity and fear at the same time This occurs only if the plot is sufficiently complex, which brings forth the tragic action The plot s complexity should be achieved through the use of recognition, a reversal and heaps of suffering for everybody The reversal is usually something like the revenger becoming the revenged and this can be achieved through recognition The recognition is the true knowledge acquired about one s circumstance, which will always bring about suffering for the tragic character In addition, the tragic characters should have a hamartia, which is to say they should have a tragic flaw This could be something like extreme loyalty or ignorance If you believe the Hegel model of tragedy then this is also the thing that makes the character better than ourselves The best illustration of a hamartia, and the one Aristotle uses, is Oedipus His lack of knowledge causes him to murder his farther and marry his mother, but at the same time leads him to become a mighty King This is a work that every literature student is encouraged to read, and there s a reason for it Aristotle s theory enlightens the reader to the devices behind tragic art Once you ve read this you ll never be able to read a Tragedy again without this in mind it forms almost a mental checklist in your head


  6. Trevor Trevor says:

    This is perhaps my favourite philosopher of the Ancient world chatting about literary criticism it doesn t really get too much better than this Plato, of course, wanted to banish all of the artists from his ideal republic He wanted to do this because the world we live in is a poor copy of the real world and so art is but a copy of a copy Rather than bring us closer to the truth, Plato believed that art took us further away.It can t have been easy for Aristotle, Plato s student, to disagre This is perhaps my favourite philosopher of the Ancient world chatting about literary criticism it doesn t really get too much better than this Plato, of course, wanted to banish all of the artists from his ideal republic He wanted to do this because the world we live in is a poor copy of the real world and so art is but a copy of a copy Rather than bring us closer to the truth, Plato believed that art took us further away.It can t have been easy for Aristotle, Plato s student, to disagree with the views of the master but disagree he clearly did He begins this by agreeing with Plato that art is imitation of the world, but rather than this being a bad thing, he says that the advantage of art is that it cuts out the dross of existence and concentrates what is important By doing this art allows us to look beyond the particulars of our everyday existence and see the universals The lessons we learn from art are thereby clearer and easier to assimilate Life is always lived in the particular, but art, to Aristotle, allows us to see deeper truths because it moves us towards universals Characters may have individual names, but we find it harder to distance ourselves from characters in fiction than we are able to do with characters in history.It would be hard to discuss this book without mentioning catharsis It is a Greek word meaning purgative, and to Aristotle the appeal of tragedies was that they act like a purgative on our emotions It is a fascinating idea and one that I think still holds It would be otherwise hard to see why we enjoy tragedies The notion that there but for the grace of God and the recognition that bad things happen even to the best of men are ideas that do have a cathartic effect on our emotions Shit happens, but it happens to the best of us as well as to the worst of us There is always something nice about watching Aristotle slice up the world he is a remarkably logical person and someone who is able to not only divide the world into its logical components, but to then say incredibly interesting things about these slices.I first read this twenty years ago, it is well worth reading and re reading


  7. Riku Sayuj Riku Sayuj says:

    This is the best commentary I could find on The Poetics Bywater s is a much better translation and immensely readable, except for the places where he employs the Greek without transliteration A good strategy could be to keep to Bywater for a first read, and then use Whalley s idiosyncratic and deliberately clumsy translation while studying his notes We can even supplement it with the Lucas notes.The best essay length criticism can be had from Lucas and Else, both of which are referred to of This is the best commentary I could find on The Poetics Bywater s is a much better translation and immensely readable, except for the places where he employs the Greek without transliteration A good strategy could be to keep to Bywater for a first read, and then use Whalley s idiosyncratic and deliberately clumsy translation while studying his notes We can even supplement it with the Lucas notes.The best essay length criticism can be had from Lucas and Else, both of which are referred to often by Whalley I am planning to read at least one of them soon.Whalley s comparisons with Coleridge is particularly useful if the reader is interested in learning to think about how Aristotle s percepts can be made to fit modern literary works Also his approach is no to treat every word A uses as a technical term, which is an unfortunate tendency of most academic works So we usually end up talking very particularly about terms which Aristotle probably wanted to give a wider ambit to This is when it becomes easy to lapse into thinking that Aristotle is too formalistic and hence dismissing him That would be poor form for a student


  8. J.G. Keely J.G. Keely says:

    There s something terribly edifying when, having created your own rubric for how books should be judged, you happen to pick up the work from which all literary criticism arose and find that you and Aristotle have independently produced the same system for judgment I know it probably just trickled down to me through cultural osmosis, but it does give me hope that I m putting the pieces together properly.


  9. ~The Bookish Redhead~ ~The Bookish Redhead~ says:

    Poetics is the earliest known work of literary criticism This copy was laid out in lecture note form Aristotle gives his views on tragedy, the plot, the characters and the content, and then it is compared to epic poetry Content wise, I think this book is great, but it was just so very boring I found the parts with the ancient Greek language particularly difficult to read and analyse.


  10. E. G. E. G. says:

    IntroductionNote on the Texts and TranslationsSelect BibliographyA Chronology of AristotleOutline of the PoeticsFrom Plato, Republic, Books 2, 3, and 10 Aristotle, Poetics From Sir Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry From P B Shelley, A Defence of Poetry From D L Sayers, Aristotle on Detective Fiction A Note on MetreExplanatory NotesGlossary of Key TermsIndex


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10 thoughts on “Poetics

  1. Glenn Russell Glenn Russell says:

    During the golden age of ancient Greece bards roamed the countryside mesmerizing crowds by reciting the epics of Homer Thousands of men and women gathered and were moved to tears by tragedies performed outside in amphitheaters during sacred festivals Such an amazingly powerful and profound experience for an entire population What was going on here why were people so deeply affected Well, one of the sharpest, most analytic minds in the history of the West set himself the task of answering ju During the golden age of ancient Greece bards roamed the countryside mesmerizing crowds by reciting the epics of Homer Thousands of men and women gathered and were moved to tears by tragedies performed outside in amphitheaters during sacred festivals Such an amazingly powerful and profound experience for an entire population What was going on here why were people so deeply affected Well, one of the sharpest, most analytic minds in the history of the West set himself the task of answering just this question his name was Aristotle.Indeed, Aristotle s Poetics is one of the greatest philosophical works ever written For over two thousand years, philosophers, scholars and thinkers have been pouring over each phrase and sentence of the master s words as if they were nuggets of gold There are enough commentaries to fill several thick volumes in a university library Quite something since the entire Poetics is a mere twenty pages But what coverage To list several plot, character, language and two concepts supercharged with meaning mimesis imitation and catharsis inspiring pity or fear.Of course, in our contemporary world we don t listen to bards recite epics or go to amphitheaters to watch tragedies, but we have abundant experience of these dramatic elements since we, among other things, read novels and watch films So, to provide a taste of Aristotle s work, I offer my modest comments along with quotes from the text Please take this as an invitation to explore the Poetics on your own Below is a link to a fine translation and a second link to an extraordinarily clear, brief, easy to follow commentary Poetry in general seems to have sprung from two causes, each of them lying deep in our nature First, the instinct of imitation is implanted in man from childhood, one difference between him and other animals being that he is the most imitative of living creatures, and through imitation learns his earliest lessons and no less universal is the pleasure felt in things imitated to learn gives the liveliest pleasure, not only to philosophers but to men in general Ah, pleasure And pleasure in learning about life through imitation fiction Even if the story involves a Siberian prison camp or an insane chase of a white whale, there is a kind of pleasure in identifying with a character and living through the character s plight Our humanness is enriched Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude The Maltese Falcon begins with very serious action a murder And the story is complete since at the end the case is solved and the criminals answer for their crimes How many novels and films follow this formula Round to the nearest million Now as tragic imitation implies persons acting, it necessarily follows in the first place, that Spectacular equipment will be a part of Tragedy Even back in ancient Greece, Aristotle acknowledges how special effects can really juice the action The most powerful elements of emotional interest in Tragedy Peripeteia or Reversal of the Situation, and Recognition scenes are parts of the plot I don t know about you, but I recall with the film Gone Girl my interest would ratchet up a few notches with every reversal and recognition I can just imagine Gillian Flynn pouring over her Aristotle The greater the length, thebeautiful will the piece be by reason of its size, provided that the whole be perspicuous When I go to a three hour movie or pick up a nine hundred page novel, my first thought this had better be good And when it is good, a great pay off for time spent Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity Admit it, we remember most those times when we are emotionally wrenched.Poetics, on line

  2. Alok Mishra Alok Mishra says:

    Had to study this one by Aristotle in the post graduation syllabus That time, we could not go beyond the walls of our academic requirements When the studies came to an official end, the free exploration began and that was the period I not only read but also pondered, enjoyed and relished in the text It opens up a whole new world in front of the readers who take an interest in literature Poetics is one of the best attempts at critical theories and it s also the base on which some great litera Had to study this one by Aristotle in the post graduation syllabus That time, we could not go beyond the walls of our academic requirements When the studies came to an official end, the free exploration began and that was the period I not only read but also pondered, enjoyed and relished in the text It opens up a whole new world in front of the readers who take an interest in literature Poetics is one of the best attempts at critical theories and it s also the base on which some great literary works have been standing for centuries

  3. Lisa Lisa says:

    I just reluctantly gave my copy of Aristotle s Poetics to my son, who recently discovered drama It is earmarked and highlighted and it guided me through university, telling me what I needed to know about tragedy and its core elements, such as unity of time, place and action.The reason we started talking about drama was that my son didn t particularly like Emilia Galotti, Lessing s B rgerliche Trag die , and we talked about the strange code of honour that made a father kill his daughter to save I just reluctantly gave my copy of Aristotle s Poetics to my son, who recently discovered drama It is earmarked and highlighted and it guided me through university, telling me what I needed to know about tragedy and its core elements, such as unity of time, place and action.The reason we started talking about drama was that my son didn t particularly like Emilia Galotti, Lessing s B rgerliche Trag die , and we talked about the strange code of honour that made a father kill his daughter to save her virtue What s progressive about that my son asked furiously, and I found myself in the bizarre position to defend patriarchy and its flawed moral codes, by saying that it was modern back then to let a girl die tragically without being a princess or a queen.My son raised his eyebrows, and I sensed the lack of logic So it was progressive that women of ALL classes were allowed to be sacrificed to the egos of men who considered them their property Eh I love the fact that literature makes me challenge my own acquired knowledge, and think again about something I just took at face value when I read Emilia Galotti myself For of course it is bizarre, especially considering that Lessing is a representative of Enlightenment culture And while we were at it, we talked about all the other bizarre elements of classical drama And we realised that it islike life than we first thought after all, each day we reinvent the narratives of our lives and press them into what we can perceive as one action, one place and one time one day of madness and drama So yesterday I acted out the tragic loss of my university copy of Aristotle It will stay in spirit

  4. Bill Kerwin Bill Kerwin says:

    If you want to learn about tragedy or narrative in general this is still the best place to start.

  5. Sean Barrs Sean Barrs says:

    It s odd that the most ancient essay on literary criticism is one of the easiest to understand It is so accessible If you compare this to works by Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud the extremities of this can easily be seen Aristotle explains his theory in the most basic language possible with no artful language that distances the reader from it It is completely comprehensive and virtually impossible not to understand Aristotle was an advocate of presenting his arguments in the most simplest of la It s odd that the most ancient essay on literary criticism is one of the easiest to understand It is so accessible If you compare this to works by Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud the extremities of this can easily be seen Aristotle explains his theory in the most basic language possible with no artful language that distances the reader from it It is completely comprehensive and virtually impossible not to understand Aristotle was an advocate of presenting his arguments in the most simplest of languages And I thank him for it Without this book I don t think I would have been able to fully comprehend exactly what a Tragedy is or how they work, and I most certainly wouldn t have been able to pass my Tragedy module of my degree ThePoeticsis essentially a guide, or rulebook, for what makes the perfect tragic play Aristotle argues, well teaches us, that it is achieved through a Cathartic moment that arouses pity and fear at the same time This occurs only if the plot is sufficiently complex, which brings forth the tragic action The plot s complexity should be achieved through the use of recognition, a reversal and heaps of suffering for everybody The reversal is usually something like the revenger becoming the revenged and this can be achieved through recognition The recognition is the true knowledge acquired about one s circumstance, which will always bring about suffering for the tragic character In addition, the tragic characters should have a hamartia, which is to say they should have a tragic flaw This could be something like extreme loyalty or ignorance If you believe the Hegel model of tragedy then this is also the thing that makes the character better than ourselves The best illustration of a hamartia, and the one Aristotle uses, is Oedipus His lack of knowledge causes him to murder his farther and marry his mother, but at the same time leads him to become a mighty King This is a work that every literature student is encouraged to read, and there s a reason for it Aristotle s theory enlightens the reader to the devices behind tragic art Once you ve read this you ll never be able to read a Tragedy again without this in mind it forms almost a mental checklist in your head

  6. Trevor Trevor says:

    This is perhaps my favourite philosopher of the Ancient world chatting about literary criticism it doesn t really get too much better than this Plato, of course, wanted to banish all of the artists from his ideal republic He wanted to do this because the world we live in is a poor copy of the real world and so art is but a copy of a copy Rather than bring us closer to the truth, Plato believed that art took us further away.It can t have been easy for Aristotle, Plato s student, to disagre This is perhaps my favourite philosopher of the Ancient world chatting about literary criticism it doesn t really get too much better than this Plato, of course, wanted to banish all of the artists from his ideal republic He wanted to do this because the world we live in is a poor copy of the real world and so art is but a copy of a copy Rather than bring us closer to the truth, Plato believed that art took us further away.It can t have been easy for Aristotle, Plato s student, to disagree with the views of the master but disagree he clearly did He begins this by agreeing with Plato that art is imitation of the world, but rather than this being a bad thing, he says that the advantage of art is that it cuts out the dross of existence and concentrates what is important By doing this art allows us to look beyond the particulars of our everyday existence and see the universals The lessons we learn from art are thereby clearer and easier to assimilate Life is always lived in the particular, but art, to Aristotle, allows us to see deeper truths because it moves us towards universals Characters may have individual names, but we find it harder to distance ourselves from characters in fiction than we are able to do with characters in history.It would be hard to discuss this book without mentioning catharsis It is a Greek word meaning purgative, and to Aristotle the appeal of tragedies was that they act like a purgative on our emotions It is a fascinating idea and one that I think still holds It would be otherwise hard to see why we enjoy tragedies The notion that there but for the grace of God and the recognition that bad things happen even to the best of men are ideas that do have a cathartic effect on our emotions Shit happens, but it happens to the best of us as well as to the worst of us There is always something nice about watching Aristotle slice up the world he is a remarkably logical person and someone who is able to not only divide the world into its logical components, but to then say incredibly interesting things about these slices.I first read this twenty years ago, it is well worth reading and re reading

  7. Riku Sayuj Riku Sayuj says:

    This is the best commentary I could find on The Poetics Bywater s is a much better translation and immensely readable, except for the places where he employs the Greek without transliteration A good strategy could be to keep to Bywater for a first read, and then use Whalley s idiosyncratic and deliberately clumsy translation while studying his notes We can even supplement it with the Lucas notes.The best essay length criticism can be had from Lucas and Else, both of which are referred to of This is the best commentary I could find on The Poetics Bywater s is a much better translation and immensely readable, except for the places where he employs the Greek without transliteration A good strategy could be to keep to Bywater for a first read, and then use Whalley s idiosyncratic and deliberately clumsy translation while studying his notes We can even supplement it with the Lucas notes.The best essay length criticism can be had from Lucas and Else, both of which are referred to often by Whalley I am planning to read at least one of them soon.Whalley s comparisons with Coleridge is particularly useful if the reader is interested in learning to think about how Aristotle s percepts can be made to fit modern literary works Also his approach is no to treat every word A uses as a technical term, which is an unfortunate tendency of most academic works So we usually end up talking very particularly about terms which Aristotle probably wanted to give a wider ambit to This is when it becomes easy to lapse into thinking that Aristotle is too formalistic and hence dismissing him That would be poor form for a student

  8. J.G. Keely J.G. Keely says:

    There s something terribly edifying when, having created your own rubric for how books should be judged, you happen to pick up the work from which all literary criticism arose and find that you and Aristotle have independently produced the same system for judgment I know it probably just trickled down to me through cultural osmosis, but it does give me hope that I m putting the pieces together properly.

  9. ~The Bookish Redhead~ ~The Bookish Redhead~ says:

    Poetics is the earliest known work of literary criticism This copy was laid out in lecture note form Aristotle gives his views on tragedy, the plot, the characters and the content, and then it is compared to epic poetry Content wise, I think this book is great, but it was just so very boring I found the parts with the ancient Greek language particularly difficult to read and analyse.

  10. E. G. E. G. says:

    IntroductionNote on the Texts and TranslationsSelect BibliographyA Chronology of AristotleOutline of the PoeticsFrom Plato, Republic, Books 2, 3, and 10 Aristotle, Poetics From Sir Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry From P B Shelley, A Defence of Poetry From D L Sayers, Aristotle on Detective Fiction A Note on MetreExplanatory NotesGlossary of Key TermsIndex

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