The Muslims of British India MOBI Î of British ePUB

The Muslims of British India MOBI Î of British ePUB

The Muslims of British India [Download] ➽ The Muslims of British India Author P. Hardy – Capitalsoftworks.co.uk Dr Hardy has attempted a general history of British India's Muslims with a deeper perspective He shows how the interplay of memories of past Muslim supremacy Islamic religious aspirations and modern M Dr Hardy has attempted a general history of of British ePUB ´ British India's Muslims with a deeper perspective He shows how the interplay of memories of past Muslim supremacy Islamic religious aspirations and modern Muslim social and economic anxieties with the political needs of the alien ruling power gradually fostered a separate Muslim politics The Muslims PDF \ Dr Hardy argues contrary to the usual view that Muslims were able to take political initiatives because in the region of modern Uttar Pradesh British rule before and even the events of the Mutiny and Rebellion of had not been economically disastrous for most of them He stresses the Muslims of British MOBI ò force of religion in the growth of Muslim political separatism showing how the 'modernists' kept the conversation among Muslims within Islamic postulates and underlining the role of the traditional scholars in heightening popular religious feeling Regarding any sense of Muslim political unity and nationhood as an outcome of the period of British rule Dr Hardy shows the limitations and frailty of that unity and nationhood by .


1 thoughts on “The Muslims of British India

  1. Sajith Kumar Sajith Kumar says:

    Partition of India into two states in 1947 was followed by one of the most cruel massacres and transfer of populations between the new states About half a million people lost their lives and 14 million changed their domicile in the largest human migration in history Killing and exodus in the name of religion may appear to be ridiculous to those who live in secular societies where the role of the state and the faith are clearly made non concentric But not so in India and in most of the Asian countries Readers may wonder what prompted the inhabitants of undivided India to go for the jugular of their neighbours with so deadly a passion Was it so tough a job for the followers of the two religions to live together in harmony? Many history books tried to answer this uestion before and since the partition of India Unfortunately for us Indian historians come in three distinct varieties with predictable literary output Muslim historians come out with the Muslim version of the debate while Hindu historians publish arguments contrary to them The third genre – the leftist historians – follow a definitely anti Hindu but not uite pro Muslim stance in step with their political ideology The truth gets buried in the melee So it is a refreshing change to read a work of history coming from the pen of a British author Naturally we get to read many episodes in India’s struggle for independence that has not been revealed to us before through the mainstream media No mention about the author or his profile is given in the book and curiously it couldn’t be accessed online too An aura of mystery hence surrounds the figure of Peter Hardy but no such confusion is observed in his lucid interpretation of the events that led to India’s partition and the role of Muslims in itThe transition of a powerful community from the privilege of ruling the country to being undistinguished inhabitants who were forced to work for their livelihood is presented in the first part of the book The century after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 saw the country moving from Islamic rule to the British This marked the end of seven centuries of Muslim rule which was based on military occupation Local aristocrats were invariably officers of the garrison When the British established their ascendancy these people lost their way of life as well as their livelihood Out of the Muslim masses which constituted a fifth of the population of British India the majority lived the same life as their Hindu bretheren in terms of their hand to mouth subsistence But the aristocrats commanded better visibility and faithfully represented the Muslim sentiment British rule thus brought in commercial enterprise as the prime economic activity in place of militarism The prevalence of robbery and general failure of law and order in the country is to be properly understood in the backdrop of the horde of unemployed soldiers roaming the countryside Pindaris robbed wayfarers and many of them were Muslims Hardy blows away the myth that Muslims were at the receiving end of the land reforms instituted by the English East India Company Presenting statistics pulled out from land revenue records it is convincingly proved that both Hindus and Muslims suffered in eual measure before the 1857 Mutiny Coupled with these factors the rise in arrogance of the Briish should also be identified for the resentment that was brewing in the subject population As the Mughal power waned the British gradually stepped into their shoes Outward appearances of obeisance to the Mughal emperor was continued for some time but later he was sidelined in a humiliating manner The time was ripe for an outburst but the British utterly failed to see it comingThe rebellion in 1857 may be termed as the single event in history if ever there was one that marked the transition of India from medievalism to modernity The age old dispensations of power were removed in one stroke without any prospect of return About 30 princes of the Mughal line were killed and the emperor exiled to Burma It was clear to the Muslims that power could not be obtained by force as long as the British were on the scene which was thought at that time to be ever lasting Two streams of counter opinions circulated among the Muslim community One section found the country to be dar al Harb abode of enmity instead of dar al Islam abode of peace and insisted on the impractical policy of migration to other lands where the sharia law prevailed The other group led by modern minded individuals like Sir Saiyid Ahmed Khan articulated for reconciliation with the British Being a devout Muslim who even postulated that the sun circulates around the earth Sir Saiyid identified the issue facing the Muslim society as not the hegemony of the British which was a fait accompli but rather the ascendancy of Hindus if the British were to concede the demand of self representation in the legislature judiciary and administration The political ethos prevailing in contemporary Europe didn’t encourage the demand for representation of religious communities This is the background for the origin of the two nation theory If the Hindus and Muslims constituted two nations of the European model it naturally calls for two separate geographical enclosures for them Saiyid Amir Ali of Orissa founded the National Mohammedan Association in 1877 which eventually paved the way for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906 When Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 Muslims under Saiyid Ahmed Khan opposed it on all fronts Even Badruddin Tyabji who was one of the earliest Congress presidents secretly sympathized with the Islamic viewpointHardy tells the tale of how the Muslims grouped together to become a separate nation within the bounds of a geographical frontier in which Hindus formed the majority The root of the problem lay in the 18th century when the collapse of Islamic regimes in power and prestige coupled with the rise of Maratha and Sikh powers prompted the nebulous Islamic sentiment to solidify at last Shah Wali Allah a Delhi scholar encouraged Muslims to follow a fundamentalist order His son Shah Abd al Aziz even termed India a dar al Harb in which the Muslims are enjoined by religious law to wage holy war against the oppressors Embers of communal passion were stoked by the puritanical writings of Saiyid Ahmed of Rae Bareilly Muslim resentment began surfacing in violent measures Dudu Miyan of Bengal accused the government of spending the tax revenue collected from Muslim peasants for Hindu religious rituals Khalifas were nominated in Bengal villages in which the rebel Tutu Mir killed cows in the open and desecrated local temples with its blood 19th century saw the Muslim ulema – the priesthood – gaining strength and the establishment of Dar ul Ulum at Deoband Fatwas were sought by the faithful on all matters of personal interactions that often verged on the ridiculous A scholar Abd al Haiy once enunciated a fatwa that a man accidentally touching in conditions of domestic overcrowding his foster brother’s wife’s mother’s thigh is guilty of zina unlawful intercourse Muslim nationalism changed its track again in the 20th century What they feared most was the prospect of living in a democratic India after the British had left and subject to the majority Hindu population who would obviously be controlling the legislature For Muslims slavery to the British was infinitely preferable than the partnership with Hindus on the political plane The acid test to determine where the sympathy of Indian Muslims lay was the response to Turkey’s defeat in the 1914 World War As the sultan was also the caliph who controlled Islam’s holiest places his miserable defeat in the war and humiliating peace treaties antagonized the Indian Muslims who called Khilafat agitation to demand justice to Turkey This had Congress support who believed this to be an opportunity to rope in Muslims for the first time in India’s historical struggle for independence Incidentally it turned out to be the last as well The Muslim leaders were interested only in the fate of Turkey and they didn’t care a damn about India’s destiny Maulana Mohammed Ali one of the leaders of the movement openly declared that helping fellow Muslims was the foremost obligation of a Muslim and should the Amir of Afghanistan declare a jihad against India and attack it Indian Muslims would wholeheartedly join the aggressor p195 Instead of territorial nationalism they opted for community federalismThe book is special in the sense that it exposes the unfamiliar side of many nationalist Muslim leaders who are eulogized in official versions of Indian history The case of Tyabji is noted earlier Another shocking expose is that of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose credentials sport a stained look if the author is to be believed In his book titled Masla i Khilafat written to support Turkey against Britain Azad reiterates that “God entrusted the vicegerency of this earth to a succession of different communities until finally it was entrusted to the community of the Prophet Muhammad” p191 Again he lays down that “it is the individual duty farz al ain of every Muslim to come to the aid of any Muslim government under attack from non Muslims” p192 The mental partition of India had already taken place in the 1920s when the foolish venture of Khilafat raged in the country foolish in the sense that when the Turks regained power under the able leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk one of his prominent actions was to dethrone the sultan and scrap the title of KhalifaHardy faithfully presents the complex web of interactions among the Muslims of British India Contrary to popular conception the community was far from monolithic Interests of class role of education political organization and level of social awareness are all neatly addressed by the author The community reacted differently to the same impetus in various provinces It may be remembered that Muslim League couldn’t command power through popular elections till about a decade from partition The author’s use of statistics is wonderfully to the point and establishes his argument without any further need of uery The sources for these figures are amazingly diverse from census figures to voting records to land revenue records and to results of schoolcollege examinations Such commendable use of actual figures is rarely seen in books of history It is to be stressed here that the readability is not at all suffered by the use of numbersThe book is highly recommended


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1 thoughts on “The Muslims of British India

  1. Sajith Kumar Sajith Kumar says:

    Partition of India into two states in 1947 was followed by one of the most cruel massacres and transfer of populations between the new states About half a million people lost their lives and 14 million changed their domicile in the largest human migration in history Killing and exodus in the name of religion may appear to be ridiculous to those who live in secular societies where the role of the state and the faith are clearly made non concentric But not so in India and in most of the Asian countries Readers may wonder what prompted the inhabitants of undivided India to go for the jugular of their neighbours with so deadly a passion Was it so tough a job for the followers of the two religions to live together in harmony? Many history books tried to answer this uestion before and since the partition of India Unfortunately for us Indian historians come in three distinct varieties with predictable literary output Muslim historians come out with the Muslim version of the debate while Hindu historians publish arguments contrary to them The third genre – the leftist historians – follow a definitely anti Hindu but not uite pro Muslim stance in step with their political ideology The truth gets buried in the melee So it is a refreshing change to read a work of history coming from the pen of a British author Naturally we get to read many episodes in India’s struggle for independence that has not been revealed to us before through the mainstream media No mention about the author or his profile is given in the book and curiously it couldn’t be accessed online too An aura of mystery hence surrounds the figure of Peter Hardy but no such confusion is observed in his lucid interpretation of the events that led to India’s partition and the role of Muslims in itThe transition of a powerful community from the privilege of ruling the country to being undistinguished inhabitants who were forced to work for their livelihood is presented in the first part of the book The century after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 saw the country moving from Islamic rule to the British This marked the end of seven centuries of Muslim rule which was based on military occupation Local aristocrats were invariably officers of the garrison When the British established their ascendancy these people lost their way of life as well as their livelihood Out of the Muslim masses which constituted a fifth of the population of British India the majority lived the same life as their Hindu bretheren in terms of their hand to mouth subsistence But the aristocrats commanded better visibility and faithfully represented the Muslim sentiment British rule thus brought in commercial enterprise as the prime economic activity in place of militarism The prevalence of robbery and general failure of law and order in the country is to be properly understood in the backdrop of the horde of unemployed soldiers roaming the countryside Pindaris robbed wayfarers and many of them were Muslims Hardy blows away the myth that Muslims were at the receiving end of the land reforms instituted by the English East India Company Presenting statistics pulled out from land revenue records it is convincingly proved that both Hindus and Muslims suffered in eual measure before the 1857 Mutiny Coupled with these factors the rise in arrogance of the Briish should also be identified for the resentment that was brewing in the subject population As the Mughal power waned the British gradually stepped into their shoes Outward appearances of obeisance to the Mughal emperor was continued for some time but later he was sidelined in a humiliating manner The time was ripe for an outburst but the British utterly failed to see it comingThe rebellion in 1857 may be termed as the single event in history if ever there was one that marked the transition of India from medievalism to modernity The age old dispensations of power were removed in one stroke without any prospect of return About 30 princes of the Mughal line were killed and the emperor exiled to Burma It was clear to the Muslims that power could not be obtained by force as long as the British were on the scene which was thought at that time to be ever lasting Two streams of counter opinions circulated among the Muslim community One section found the country to be dar al Harb abode of enmity instead of dar al Islam abode of peace and insisted on the impractical policy of migration to other lands where the sharia law prevailed The other group led by modern minded individuals like Sir Saiyid Ahmed Khan articulated for reconciliation with the British Being a devout Muslim who even postulated that the sun circulates around the earth Sir Saiyid identified the issue facing the Muslim society as not the hegemony of the British which was a fait accompli but rather the ascendancy of Hindus if the British were to concede the demand of self representation in the legislature judiciary and administration The political ethos prevailing in contemporary Europe didn’t encourage the demand for representation of religious communities This is the background for the origin of the two nation theory If the Hindus and Muslims constituted two nations of the European model it naturally calls for two separate geographical enclosures for them Saiyid Amir Ali of Orissa founded the National Mohammedan Association in 1877 which eventually paved the way for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906 When Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 Muslims under Saiyid Ahmed Khan opposed it on all fronts Even Badruddin Tyabji who was one of the earliest Congress presidents secretly sympathized with the Islamic viewpointHardy tells the tale of how the Muslims grouped together to become a separate nation within the bounds of a geographical frontier in which Hindus formed the majority The root of the problem lay in the 18th century when the collapse of Islamic regimes in power and prestige coupled with the rise of Maratha and Sikh powers prompted the nebulous Islamic sentiment to solidify at last Shah Wali Allah a Delhi scholar encouraged Muslims to follow a fundamentalist order His son Shah Abd al Aziz even termed India a dar al Harb in which the Muslims are enjoined by religious law to wage holy war against the oppressors Embers of communal passion were stoked by the puritanical writings of Saiyid Ahmed of Rae Bareilly Muslim resentment began surfacing in violent measures Dudu Miyan of Bengal accused the government of spending the tax revenue collected from Muslim peasants for Hindu religious rituals Khalifas were nominated in Bengal villages in which the rebel Tutu Mir killed cows in the open and desecrated local temples with its blood 19th century saw the Muslim ulema – the priesthood – gaining strength and the establishment of Dar ul Ulum at Deoband Fatwas were sought by the faithful on all matters of personal interactions that often verged on the ridiculous A scholar Abd al Haiy once enunciated a fatwa that a man accidentally touching in conditions of domestic overcrowding his foster brother’s wife’s mother’s thigh is guilty of zina unlawful intercourse Muslim nationalism changed its track again in the 20th century What they feared most was the prospect of living in a democratic India after the British had left and subject to the majority Hindu population who would obviously be controlling the legislature For Muslims slavery to the British was infinitely preferable than the partnership with Hindus on the political plane The acid test to determine where the sympathy of Indian Muslims lay was the response to Turkey’s defeat in the 1914 World War As the sultan was also the caliph who controlled Islam’s holiest places his miserable defeat in the war and humiliating peace treaties antagonized the Indian Muslims who called Khilafat agitation to demand justice to Turkey This had Congress support who believed this to be an opportunity to rope in Muslims for the first time in India’s historical struggle for independence Incidentally it turned out to be the last as well The Muslim leaders were interested only in the fate of Turkey and they didn’t care a damn about India’s destiny Maulana Mohammed Ali one of the leaders of the movement openly declared that helping fellow Muslims was the foremost obligation of a Muslim and should the Amir of Afghanistan declare a jihad against India and attack it Indian Muslims would wholeheartedly join the aggressor p195 Instead of territorial nationalism they opted for community federalismThe book is special in the sense that it exposes the unfamiliar side of many nationalist Muslim leaders who are eulogized in official versions of Indian history The case of Tyabji is noted earlier Another shocking expose is that of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose credentials sport a stained look if the author is to be believed In his book titled Masla i Khilafat written to support Turkey against Britain Azad reiterates that “God entrusted the vicegerency of this earth to a succession of different communities until finally it was entrusted to the community of the Prophet Muhammad” p191 Again he lays down that “it is the individual duty farz al ain of every Muslim to come to the aid of any Muslim government under attack from non Muslims” p192 The mental partition of India had already taken place in the 1920s when the foolish venture of Khilafat raged in the country foolish in the sense that when the Turks regained power under the able leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk one of his prominent actions was to dethrone the sultan and scrap the title of KhalifaHardy faithfully presents the complex web of interactions among the Muslims of British India Contrary to popular conception the community was far from monolithic Interests of class role of education political organization and level of social awareness are all neatly addressed by the author The community reacted differently to the same impetus in various provinces It may be remembered that Muslim League couldn’t command power through popular elections till about a decade from partition The author’s use of statistics is wonderfully to the point and establishes his argument without any further need of uery The sources for these figures are amazingly diverse from census figures to voting records to land revenue records and to results of schoolcollege examinations Such commendable use of actual figures is rarely seen in books of history It is to be stressed here that the readability is not at all suffered by the use of numbersThe book is highly recommended

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